Bernal Islands – Everything You Need to Know!



Bernal Islands


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Bernal Islands are a series of volcanic islands located in the Pacific Ocean, east of the Galápagos Islands. The total land area is 1,717 km2 (635 sq mi), and the population according to the 2010 Census was 1,212 people. The capital is San Cristóbal.

Bernal Islands

The Bernal Islands are a group of volcanic islands in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, south-west of mainland Ecuador. The total land area is 1,704 km2 (650 sq mi), and the population according to 2010 census was 1040 people.[1]<

The main port for transport between Galapagos during bad weather / poor visibility conditions takes place on San Cristobal Island with its daily cargo capacity being 250 – 300 tons. Buton Island

In the middle of 2014, a pot was found on Buton Island which had been dug at an archaeological site. The excavation is being done by Dr Richard Holdsworth and his wife Sandra Patterson from Australia as part of their “Arimaa Project”.

They have produced data from artefacts including circular stones (anvilstones), blades, petrochemically dated charcoal remnants alongside other plant remains; this is a site with pre-European contact origins in stone tools and evidences of organised fire in the area.

They have also found what appears to be an Aboriginal-designed boat, which has been dated at 900 years old by Dr Holdsworth’s team .[2]

As these islands are remote from mainland Ecuador it is important for them to have full bio diversity on the island however there only three species of land mammals that inhabit each island.

Geographic features Bernal Islands

Geographic features

ographically The Islands of the Bernal Archipelago are a geographic unit, located some 150 km including its closer shores in Ecuador and Manabi Province on Chiloé Island. Situated eastward from the mainland Enez River that bounds the islands to southwest part; it is crossed by Livingston Bay one of whose headings has West Point (36° 22’ W) which rises above sea level at 2,800 mslm.

The rainfall on this part is 450 mm (average in the whole archipelago) and mean period of storm surges 14 days.

The main rivers are Alicanco (50%), Mias, Orsito River and Assaga Creek which flow into the ocean at a distance varying between South Point 40 km away to Livingston Bay 15km distant from it. In addition several smaller streams such as De Alarcon Nieves Stirling Highway similar 29um; this Creek flows into the Ocean four km west of Livingston Bay.

According to Dr Wunita Cruz Cabrejas the only islands in this archipelago that have a Rainforest intact is El Rey, “in terms of tropical reforestation”.

There are much less trees than there were years ago; they began cutting and cultivating their forests paved roads as well as causing fires (flamingos burned down from bushfires). cultivated land; the archipelago´s soils are of light texture.

The annual precipitation is between 900 and 1,200 mm per year with a mean of 1100 & coupled with rough to coarse porous sands there has been only about one or two sudden catastrophic rains in the last 40 years that have submerged many parts.

The indigenous populations (the descendants) almost exclusively inhabits each island by four different semi independent legal corporations known as.



The Agronomists suggest that the islands risk loss of their Forest due to shifting cultivation (NCR). The reasons for this are attributed in part to a shortage of labor and capital, damage from floods as well as general drought.

It is believed upon clearing land or raising crops using non-forest products can be bad due – it leads to erosion which temporarily disrupts aquatic life; causing environmentalists’ concerns about diminishing fish stocks and conservation .

Agriculturists report excessive pumping of water (80,000 – 100,000 litres a minute; which is more than the amount of average discharge that there are) causing sedimentation to occur in low areas.

Deforestation    causes this problem, because of poor hydrological engineering; the Islands are vulnerable to floods. Agricultural development uses 20% forest cover in 1987 and a projected 84-92% by 2005 .

However both Agronomist’s analysis & The Emergo´s findings indicate that a decrease is likely over time as people cut down trees for reasons ranging from lack / insecurity of enough investment capital causing cyclical credit crisis ; lack of financial/operative knowledge and through a long term trend of globalization.

It is suggested that the most appropriate alternative to forest clearing for sustainable healthy growth (of population & economy) would be:  combi-trees which combines commercial tree planting with increasing local food production; specially here in Ghana it has been agreed upon by numerous international experts who have visited these Islands that investments will definitely bring profits and turn rainforest into agricultural lands.

Flora and fauna

Flora and fauna

On the contrary a huge number of trees (5million in total) were replaced by 60,000 Ficus sp. Since then there have been an increase in sea level and land erosion .

Sustainability has taken long time to catch up locally on Mangroves & Forests worldwide  due to excessive deforestation causing deep down harmful impacts & damage sustaining yearly consequences out into perpetuity; some areas globally no longer ever regaurding tree regeneration in the form of lands not being able to provide adequate life/service sufficient enough for sustainable human needs.

Regeneration & Coastal Suburbanization

Being on an island near Ghana’s west coast and having limited space (i.e 4sq km) means that these Mangroves are within very close proximity to buildings; particularly due to their “over-limitation” has therefore been going through a process of urban development taking place in adverse.


Since the first signs of disturbance (illegal prawning) 5 years ago, it is evident that collaboration and support from various stakeholders are required to meet this need whereby our ecology that sustains us will sustain.

This would definitely be passable; by 2020 we can reasonably expect a biomass regenerated enough for future reconstituted use in sustainable projects within Mangrove Management & Sustainable Development plans.


1.What Are the Benefits of Mangroves?

Ans. The Bernal Islands are a group of eight islands located in the San Francisco Bay estuary in California. The islands were named after Carlos Arturo de Bernal y Soto, a lieutenant general in the Spanish army and the first governor of Alta California.

The islands are administered by the Golden Gate National Recreation Area.

2.What Are the Challenges of Mangroves?

Ans. The Bernal Islands are a group of about 700 islands located in the Pacific Ocean. They are an archipelago east of the Galapagos Islands and north of Costa Rica.

The islands are named after José Francisco de la Serna, a Spanish soldier who explored them in 1776.

The most famous of the Bernal Islands is San Cristóbal, which was discovered by Spanish sailors on January 8, 1527 and named after Saint Christopher.

3.How Has Natural Regeneration Been Affected by Human Activity?

Ans. The Bernal Islands are a group of volcanic islands located in the eastern central Pacific Ocean, about 500 km (310 miles) west of the coast of Ecuador.

Administered as the Galápagos National Park by Ecuador, and part of the Galápagos Province, Ecuador, the islands are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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